In the manufacturing industry, metal is one of the most commonly used processing materials. The size of parts that make up the machine is different, and the common shape and structure are different. In the process of metal fabrication, different processing methods will be adopted due to the difference of products, such as CNC turning, drilling, boring, planing, broaching, milling and grinding, etc. Their cutting motion forms are vary, so they have different technological characteristics and applications.
Common Methods & Techniques of Metal Fabrication
What are the different methods of metal processing? Here are some common machining and manufacturing techniques applied to make metal components and products.
The main movement of turning is the rotating movement of workpiece, especially for machining the cylindrical object and the straight line movement of the tool is the feed motion. Turning has the characteristics of ensuring the position accuracy of each machining surface, high production efficiency and wide use of turning materials. It is widely used in production, such as turning of outer circle, hole cutting, end face turning, taper turning, etc. Turning is not only suitable for small batch production, but also suitable for mass production. In the small batch production of single piece, various kinds of shaft, disk, set and other parts are mostly processed by horizontal lathe or CNC lathe with wide adaptability. When large quantities of small parts with less complex shape are produced, such as screws, nuts, pipe joints, shaft sleeves, etc. In general, the turning process is continuous, not easy to produce impact, cutting force basically does not change. In addition, when the cutter geometry, feed rate and feed rate are fixed, the cutting process can adopt high-speed cutting and strong cutting layer (nominal cross-sectional area) is constant, and the change of cutting force is very small.
Drilling is a kind of hole processing method, which will cause some special problems due to the rigidity, strength, chip holding and chip discharge of the drill bit. The common problems can be found in CNC drilling are: bit is easy to lead, chip removal is difficult, cutting temperature is high and precision is low. In the machining, single piece and small batch production are carried out. Small holes in small and medium-sized workpieces are usually processed by table drilling machine. In batch and mass production, in order to ensure the machining accuracy, improve production efficiency and reduce processing cost, drilling mould, multi axis drilling or combination machine tool are widely used for hole processing.
The cutting method of boring tool rotation, and workpiece or boring tool as feed motion. For small batch production of single piece by boring, the boring head is installed on the boring bar, and the size of the hole diameter is guaranteed by adjusting the length of the head.
Planing is a method of plane processing, and it is also one of the most common methods for small batch constant production of single piece. In our production, we can often see the bulldozer, gantry planer and insert machine, etc. The planer machining has the characteristics of good generality, low production efficiency and poor machining precision, so it is not suitable for large-scale and high-precision production.
Broaching is mainly used to carry out the method of inner and outer surface of workpiece, and the surface reaches high precision and small roughness value. Broaching has the characteristics of high production efficiency, high precision, small surface roughness, simple structure and operation, and high cost. The inner broach is mainly used for broaching round hole, square hole, polygon hole, flower key hole and inner gear, and outer broach is used for cutting grooves of plane and various shapes.
Milling is also a main processing method in plane machining. CNC milling service has the characteristics of high production efficiency, easy vibration and better cooling conditions of cutter teeth. Milling is mainly used to process plane (including horizontal, vertical and inclined), groove, forming surface and cutting.
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