Women may sometimes have irregular or extended menstrual cycles and elevated male hormone levels (androgen). Tiny amounts of liquid are generated in the ovaries and cannot release eggs regularly due to this condition. The specific aetiology of it is still a mystery. PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome) is a condition that affects a large proportion of women who can reproduce. Treatment with weight reduction and early diagnosis have been shown to lower the likelihood of developing chronic problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
When women reach adolescence, the signs and symptoms of PCOS are most often shown around the time of their first menstrual cycle. PCOS may develop later, for example, in reaction to a large amount of weight gain. Polycystic ovaries manifest themselves in a variety of ways. When you have at least two of the following symptoms, you have been diagnosed with PCOS.
- Irregular periods: Menstrual periods that are infrequent, irregular, or protracted are the most prevalent symptom of PCOS. It is possible to have less than nine periods per year, more than 35 days between each cycle, and hefty periods, among other things.
- Excess testosterone in the body: Increased levels of male hormones may cause physical manifestations such as excessive face and body hair (hirsutism), severe acne, and male-pattern baldness, among other things.
- Ovaries with polycystic cysts: Your ovaries may have grown in size and contain follicles that enclose the eggs. As a consequence, the ovaries may cease to operate regularly.
If you’re overweight, the signs and symptoms of PCOS are usually more severe.
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When should you see the doctor?
Seeing a physician is recommended if you are suffering irregular or painful menstrual cycles or have indicators of excess androgens, such as increasing hirsutism, acne, or male-pattern baldness that are not going away.
The specific aetiology of Polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown at this time. The following are examples of factors that might have a role:
- Insulin in excess: Insulin is a hormone generated by the pancreas that permits cells to use sugar, which serves as the body’s principal energy source. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. If your cells develop a resistance to the action of insulin, your blood sugar levels may increase, and your body may respond by producing more insulin to counteract this effect. Excess insulin may cause an increase in testosterone production, which may make ovulation more difficult.
- Inflammation at a low level: This word refers to the production of anti-infective chemicals by white blood cells to combat infection. The findings of recent research indicate that women with Polycystic ovary syndrome have a form of low-grade inflammation that encourages the production of androgens by the polycystic ovaries, which may lead to heart and blood vessel disorders.
- Heredity: According to recent research, several genes may be associated with PCOS.
- Excess testosterone in the body: A high amount of androgen produced by the ovaries can develop hirsutism and acne.
PCOS may cause a variety of complications, including:
- During pregnancy, women are more likely to suffer from gestational diabetes, also known as pregnancy-induced hypertension.
- There is also the possibility of premature birth or a miscarriage.
- Abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels are all symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Your risk of cardiovascular disease rises significantly if you have metabolic syndrome.
- Type 2 diabetes, also known as prediabetes, is a metabolic disorder that affects blood sugar levels.
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders are among the conditions that might occur.
- Uterine bleeding is not usual.
- Uterine lining cancer is a kind of cancer that affects the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)
- Obesity is connected with PCOS and may exacerbate the problems of the illness if not treated.